BV- Malignant htn gross

Long-standing malignant hypertension can induce which of the following gross morphological change in the kidneys?

BV- PAN clinical

A 45-year-old male comes to your clinic complaining of severe headache, abdominal pain with one incidence of bloody stool and general body aches. On examination, the blood pressure is noted to be 150/100 mmHg. The patient also reports a previous history of hepatitis B infection. Direct catheter renal artery angiography shows the presence of multiple […]


A 7-year-old child presents with abdominal pain. The mother noticed that the boy developed a rash on his legs a few days ago. On examination, there is a presence of non-blanching purpura on the extensor surfaces of arms and legs. Fluorescence microscopy of the lesions shows deposits of perivascular IgA and neutrophilic collections. The likely […]


The most common cause of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is:​

BV- Monckeberg

Monckeberg’s calcific sclerosis affects the medium-sized muscular arteries by involving which of the blood vessel wall layers?

BV- diabetes risk for gangrene

Diabetes mellitus is a known independent risk factor and directly increases a 100-fold risk for which of the following?

BV- benign hypertension M/E

A 40-year-old male visits your clinic for a routine checkup. On examination, the blood pressure is noted to be 145/90 mmHg. Which of the following is the commonest microscopic histological finding in small blood vessels as a result of benign hypertension?