A patient presents to the clinic complaining of menstrual irregularity and infertility. Her BMI is 29.6 kg/m2, and she has recently noticed facial hair growth. Ultrasonogram (USG) shows cysts in both ovaries. A diagnosis of PCOS is considered, and hormonal evaluation is suggested. What are the expected laboratory findings in this case of PCOS?

Female- Chronic endometritis

A patient presents with complaints of pelvic pain. Biopsy reveals chronic endometritis and the patient is started on antibiotic therapy. Presence of which of the following cells in the endometrium is consistent with a diagnosis of chronic endometritis?

Female- Serous cystadenocarcinoma

A patient presents with abdominal discomfort, and an ultrasonogram (USG) reveals an ovarian mass. Microscopic examination reveals cystic lesions and the presence of psammoma bodies. What is the likely diagnosis?

Female- low risk HPV

A 50-year-old female is diagnosed with superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma and subsequently treated with cervical cone excision. Which human papillomavirus (HPV) types are not considered high risk for cervical carcinoma?

Female- location for SIL

A female patient is diagnosed to have an intraepithelial lesion on the cervical PAP smear screening. What is the most common location for such lesions?

Female- endometriosis

A 35-year-old female presents to the OB/GYN department for evaluation of infertility. She complains of menstrual irregularities, dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain, which coincides with her menstruation. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Female- Cystadenoma

Ultrasonogram (USG) detects a mass projecting from the ovarian surface in a patient who presented for abdominal discomfort evaluation. The mass is excised surgically. Grossly, the mass has a smooth glistening cystic wall. Microscopic examination reveals abundant cilia in the columnar epithelial cells lining the cyst. Occasional microscopic papillae are also noted. What is the […]

Female- Teratoma grading basis

An important risk for subsequent extra ovarian spread of an immature malignant teratoma is the tumor’s histologic grade (I to III). Immature teratoma is graded based on the proportion of tumor comprised by which of the following?

Female- dysgerminoma markers

A 25-year-old female patient presents to the OB/GYN to evaluate abdominal discomfort and lower quadrant pain. Ultrasonogram (USG) reveals a unilateral ovarian mass in the left ovary. Laboratory values include elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. The mass is excised, and pathological evaluation confirms the positivity for OCT3, OCT4 and NANOG along with KIT gene mutation. […]