Hereditary angioedema mechanism

A 25-year-old woman presents with a history of recurrent shortness of breath and stress-induced laryngeal edema. Laboratory studies demonstrate that she has a deficiency of an esterase inhibitor. What is the mechanism of this patient’s disease?

IL 8

A researcher is studying how arachidonic acid metabolites mediate the inflammatory response in rats. She has developed multiple enzyme inhibitors targeting individual proteins in the arachidonic acid pathway. She injects these inhibitors in rats who have been exposed to common bacterial pathogens and analyzes their downstream effects. In one of her experiments, she injects a […]


Macrophages initiate the tissue repair process and are involved in scar formation and fibrosis by decreasing the expression of MHC molecules and Th1 cytokines. As a result, they can terminate inflammation and promote tissue repair. Which of the following cytokines released from such macrophages help with this anti-inflammatory response?

Inflammation- Gliosis

The nervous system lacks the ability to regenerate nerve cells and is therefore particularly vulnerable to injury. Following brain injury or infection which of the following facilitates scar formation, thereby helping to contain inflammation and control tissue damage, thereby preserving the function of neuronal networks?

Inflammation- Keloid

A 26-year-old African American female presents with a painless lesion on her left ear lobe. You notice multiple ear and nose piercings and a tattoo covering the ear and left shoulder. The lesional growth measures 1cm in diameter and seems to be beyond the boundaries of the original piercing area. She also recalls trying some […]

Inflammation- Repair sequence

Arrange the following events in the sequence of occurrence during repair by scar formation? 1. Accumulation of acute inflammatory cells 2. Connective tissue reorganization and scar formation 3. Proliferation and migration of fibroblasts 4. Formation of a fibrin clot 5. Macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of cellular debris

Inflammation- Acute phase proteins

As part of the response to inflammatory stimuli, levels of plasma proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and serum amyloid A (SAA) protein may increase several hundredfolds. Together, these markers belong to which of the following families of proteins?

Inflammation- steroids inhibit phospholipase

A 22-year-old female presents to your clinic with a 2-week history of fever and multiple joint pains. She has an erythematous, facial rash that flares up when she is out in direct sunlight. Corticosteroids are prescribed for the patient with an aim to reduce inflammatory responses. Which of the following enzymes is the prime target […]

Inflammation- t-PA synthesis

Recombinant biotechnology has allowed tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to be manufactured in the lab. It is classified as a serine protease which is one of the essential components for the dissolution of blood clots. In vivo which of the following cells is the main source of plasma tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA)?

Inflammation- CD31

A 20-year-old woman develops a red, hot and swollen right elbow joint after trauma while working out in the gym. Fluid aspirated from the joint space shows an abundance of inflammatory cells which are mostly neutrophils. Which of the following molecules stimulates these neutrophils to migrate through interendothelial gaps in the blood vessels at the […]