Neoplasia- BCL2 function

The Human B-cell lymphoma gene (BCL-2) was historically discovered as the gene located near the junction at which chromosomes 18 and 14 (t14;18) are joined anomalously in the tumor cells of follicular lymphoma patients. This chromosome translocation leads to misregulation of the normal BCL-2 expression pattern to contribute to cancer. Constitutive overexpression of the protein […]

Neoplasia- 9;22

A 70-year-old man presented to his primary care physician with 2 months of fatigue and a 10-pound weight loss. He noted a general sense of malaise. On physical examination, the clinician could palpate the spleen 4 cm below the costal margin but noted no palpable lymphadenopathy. Family history was noncontributory. The CBC reveals marked leukocytosis […]

Neoplasia- Asbestos- mesothelioma

A 70-year old male presents to your clinic complaining of chest discomfort, malaise, fever, night sweats and weight loss of 8.2 kg (18lbs). He had worked in a shipyard most of his adult life. A chest X-ray reveals a large pleural effusion and lung tissue biopsy confirms a malignant pleural mesothelium tumor. Which of the […]

Neoplasia- Desmoplasia

A 55-year old female undergoes a biopsy for a breast lump and is subsequently diagnosed with cancer. The microscopy of the tumor biopsy shows evidence of dense and abundant collagen-rich ECM secreted by fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Which of the following best describes this change in the patient’s cancer?

Neoplasia- E cadherin loss

A 65-year old male is diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer which is also chemoresistant. Reduced expression of which of the following is expected to be seen in the neoplastic cells?

Neoplasia- CIS defn

A 45-year old female comes to your clinic for routine PAP smear screening. The PAP smear indicates a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. A biopsy is performed and results show full thickness dysplasia with an intact basement membrane in the cervical epithelium. Which of the following terms best describes this cervical lesion?

Neoplasia- APC function

The normal product of the APC gene primarily regulates which of the following cell behaviors?

Neoplasia- BCC= sunlight

A 75-year-old male presents to your clinic concerned about a pearly papule on his upper lip. The histopathology report suggests a diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Exposure to which of the following is strongly correlated with a high incidence of this malignancy?

Neoplasia- ovarian cystic teratoma

A 23-year-old African American female presents to your outpatient clinic complaining of abdominal distension and pain of 3 weeks duration. She was diagnosed with constipation 1 week before presentation for which she was taking stool softener resulting in bowel movement every 2 days. Review of systems is positive for heavy menses since menarche, which started […]

Neoplasia- Paraneoplastic

A 51-year-old man presents to your clinic with a 6-month history of worsening dyspnoea on exertion. His symptoms included a nearly constant dry cough, diminished appetite without weight loss, and fatigue. He had previously been diagnosed to have uncontrolled glucose levels and hypertension. The patient was a smoker with a 40 pack-per-year history. A chest […]