The Human B-cell lymphoma gene (BCL-2) was historically discovered as the gene located near the junction at which chromosomes 18 and 14 (t14;18) are joined anomalously in the tumor cells of follicular lymphoma patients. This chromosome translocation leads to misregulation of the normal BCL-2 expression pattern to contribute to cancer. Constitutive overexpression of the protein […]
A 70-year-old man presented to his primary care physician with 2 months of fatigue and a 10-pound weight loss. He noted a general sense of malaise. On physical examination, the clinician could palpate the spleen 4 cm below the costal margin but noted no palpable lymphadenopathy. Family history was noncontributory. The CBC reveals marked leukocytosis […]
A 70-year old male presents to your clinic complaining of chest discomfort, malaise, fever, night sweats and weight loss of 8.2 kg (18lbs). He had worked in a shipyard most of his adult life. A chest X-ray reveals a large pleural effusion and lung tissue biopsy confirms a malignant pleural mesothelium tumor. Which of the […]
A 55-year old female undergoes a biopsy for a breast lump and is subsequently diagnosed with cancer. The microscopy of the tumor biopsy shows evidence of dense and abundant collagen-rich ECM secreted by fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Which of the following best describes this change in the patient’s cancer?
A 65-year old male is diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer which is also chemoresistant. Reduced expression of which of the following is expected to be seen in the neoplastic cells?
A 45-year old female comes to your clinic for routine PAP smear screening. The PAP smear indicates a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. A biopsy is performed and results show full thickness dysplasia with an intact basement membrane in the cervical epithelium. Which of the following terms best describes this cervical lesion?
The normal product of the APC gene primarily regulates which of the following cell behaviors?
A 75-year-old male presents to your clinic concerned about a pearly papule on his upper lip. The histopathology report suggests a diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Exposure to which of the following is strongly correlated with a high incidence of this malignancy?
A 23-year-old African American female presents to your outpatient clinic complaining of abdominal distension and pain of 3 weeks duration. She was diagnosed with constipation 1 week before presentation for which she was taking stool softener resulting in bowel movement every 2 days. Review of systems is positive for heavy menses since menarche, which started […]
A 51-year-old man presents to your clinic with a 6-month history of worsening dyspnoea on exertion. His symptoms included a nearly constant dry cough, diminished appetite without weight loss, and fatigue. He had previously been diagnosed to have uncontrolled glucose levels and hypertension. The patient was a smoker with a 40 pack-per-year history. A chest […]